COFFEE AND TEA RESEARCH

Following the establishment of Jimma Agricultural Research Center (JARC) in late 1967, coffee research was focused on forest and semi forest coffee improvement. Sooner, the research strategy was revised to include improvement of agronomic practices (spacing, hole size, weed control, fertilizer rate, etc.), coffee processing for quality improvement, germplasm collection and selection for variety development and a limited amount of entomological and pathological studies. After the occurrence of CBD in 1971 and its subsequent spread to all coffee areas, the emphasis and the research strategy was largely shifted to the control of the disease. Soon after, a strategy was developed and a national campaign was launched to combat the disease in two possible ways, by spraying fungicide and development of resistant cultivars. Thanks to our land for its endowment of immense genetic diversities that enabled to identify CBD resistant genotypes in the shortest time possible and put CBD under control. Subsequently, with the gradual development of coffee research, seven research disciplines/division, five sub-centers and four testing sites were established as part of coffee research strategy to tackle all aspects of coffee production, processing and agro-ecological challenges in a holistic approach.

A National coffee and Tea Commodity Research Strategy Fifteen years (2016-2030) which can serve as a roadmap to guide the coffee research program planning and implementation with the ultimate goal of making considerable research contribution towards achieving the ambitious Growth and Transformation plan of II plan was developed. Under coffee and Tea research representative there are three national programs (Southwest and nontraditional, West coffee research program in coffee and Tea research program). At present the process having a total of 48 researchers (2) PhD holder, (14) MSc and (6) BSc holders and 27 researchers are on training.

Coffee research sub-centers in the major coffee growing areas of Ethiopia

Sub-center

Year of Establishment

Total Landholding (ha)

Elevation (m.a.s.l)

Mandate Areas

Jimma

1967

183

1753

Jimma/Limmu

Gera

1974

280

1900

Jimma/Gera highland

Agaro

1973

15

1630

Limmu/Jimma

Metu

1974

32

1550

Illu Ababora

Haru

1998

76

1750

West Wellega

Mugi

1973

27

1553

Kelem Wollega

Tepi

1976

100

1200

Tepi/Bebeka

Mechara

2005

50

1800

West Hararghe

Awada

1997

31

1740

Sidama

Wenago

1974

10

1850

Yirgacheffe

Vision

The coffee research process at Jimma aspires to see the coffee research system become a center of excellence in Arabica coffee germplasm conservation and research in Africa and beyond, competently contributing to bring Ethiopia to the forefront in Arabica coffee production in the world.

Mission

To generate and disseminate applicable and sustainable coffee technologies and knowledge through innovative research for improved productivity, processing or quality, value addition and marketing of coffee while conserving the coffee genetic resources and the environment as a whole.

Goal

The ultimate goal of the coffee commodity research is to provide all the relevant technologies that are essential to revamp the Ethiopian coffee industry and thereby maximize the country’s foreign exchange earnings from coffee and improve the livelihoods of the resource poor smallholder coffee farmers and that of all other actors in the value chain.

Objectives

The overarching objective of coffee research is to build research capacity and undertake competent studies on problems related to coffee development, processing and marketing under different agro-ecologies throughout the country and generate appropriate technologies that would increase production, productivity (yield) and quality of the crop.

Guiding principles and values

  • Integrity and professionalism
  • Scientific research methods
  • Team approach and partnership (private and public)
  • Loyalty and respect to diverse client needs
  • Responsibility and accountability
  • Environmental consciousness
  • Inclusiveness and gender sensitiveness

The Coffee and Tea Research Process consists of four research sections: Genetics and Breeding; Agronomy Physiology; Crop Protection, and Coffee Processing and Quality Improvement sections. The disciplinary themes and their specific objectives as components of coffee research discipline under the process include:

1. Genetics and Breeding: The major thrusts of the division are (a) collection and selection of Arabica coffee germplasm in Ethiopia; (b) selection scheme for specific purposes (CBD resistance); and (c) hybridization scheme.

Coffee hybridization activity at JARC

2. Agronomy and Physiology: The discipline focused to solve the bottleneck agronomic constraints and challenges in the areas of nursery and field management and processing (pre- and post-harvest) technologies or practices that would increase production, productivity and quality of coffee produce and thereby contribute to increased income of the growers.

3. Crop protection: The research in crop protection contain develop appropriate methods of controlling diseases, insect pests and weeds with special emphasis to developing integrated management practices of the pests which is cost effective and efficient.

4. Coffee Processing and Quality Improvement: Quality is critically important to the coffee industry. Coffee, which has good inherent quality, may be rejected unless good processing practices are strictly followed. Developing and promoting improved pre-and post-harvest processing technologies that increase quality and productivity of coffee for different agro ecologies throughout the country are key study areas of quality section.

TECHNOLOGIES

Variety Development

Status of coffee germplasm collections at research field gene-banks 

Program/Type

Year (GC)

Original Collection

Present Number

National Collection

1966-1990

1633

1431

Exotic Collection

1968-1984

190

78

CBD Selection

1973-1987

868

825

Local Landrace

1994-2015

4232

3519

Total

 

6923

5853

Released coffee varieties/hybrids

Variety Group

Number of Varieties

Year of Release

Yield Range (q/ha)

On station

On farm

CBD Resistant Varieties

13

1978-1981

12.2-23.8

6.0-10.0

Low and Mid-land Varieties

5

1997-2002

16.6-23.4

9.0-20.0

Hybrid Varieties

6

1997-2008

24.0-26.0

13.0-20.0

High-land Varieties

4

2006

16.4-23.5

15.2-16.2

Land-race Varieties

12

2006, 2010

11.9-20.4

7.2-16.2

Total

40

 

 

 


Information Generated

  • Existence of two pathogenic forms, viz. isolates attacking Coffea arabica, and those pathogenic to C. canephora and C. Excelsa were reported in CWD pathogen populations
  • The existence of variation in terms of tolerance to BBC among land races and released coffee cultivars were reported.
  • Basic information on the biology and ecology of the major and some of the potential insect pests have been documented.
  • 14 diseases along with causal pathogens have been identified and documented on Arabica coffee in Ethiopia
  • Over 47 species of insect pests are known to attack coffee in Ethiopia
  • Over 63 weed species from 23 families identified and documented
  • The efficacy of 17 glyphosate based herbicides tested and recommended for registration Forest coffee:
  • Rejuvenation, density and land preparation practices were studied in forest coffee management.
  • Seed technology: the phonology of coffee fruit, seed storage condition and time as well as pre-sowing treatments were studied and recommended. 
  • Seed sowing: Potting media blends direct sowing at a depth of 1 cm was found to be better deeper sowing.
  • Nursery management: mulching material and thickness, watering frequency 50-70% shade levels have been developed.
  • Pre-planting and young coffee management: Deeper hole-sizes (50 cm x 50 cm, 60 cm x 60 cm), early transplanting, mulching, temporary shade type and planting pattern were identified.
  • Soil moisture and fertility management: Proper land preparation methods - tied- ridge, banding, terracing, planting cover crops and vetivar grass were developed to conserve soil moisture. The integrated use of organic and mineral fertilizers, their rates and methods of application have been studied and recommended for coffee production at each locality.
  • Planting pattern: Optimum coffee spacing or plant population in relation to canopy classes, productive bearing heads and age of coffee trees, pruning system, planting pattern and head shading conditions have been recommended for each agro-ecology.
  • Coffee shade management: Ideal shade trees (temporary and permanent), multipurpose, leguminous, with wide canopy spread, moderate light interception and other desirable characteristics have been known at each area. Strip planting of shade trees had better coffee yield than mixed planting pattern. Significantly higher coffee yield was recorded under each shade tree species as opposed to open sun conditions.
  • Pruning techniques: Pruning can be applied on young and matured coffee trees. In young coffee, capping and number of verticals identified. For mature coffee, handling and de-suckering have been determined for the main and maintenance pruning times at different agro-ecologies.
  • Rejuvenation: old or unproductive coffee trees can be rehabilitated by using suitable rejuvenation methods as recommended for the stiff or flexible stem nature and overall farm situations. Maximum care should be made to prevent and control coffee wilt disease while stumping coffee trees.
  • Coffee intercropping: Coffee can be interplanted with other companion crops during the early stages in transplanted or stumped coffee field. For this, leguminous annual food and spices crops can be intercropped in a properly designed pattern at each location. This practice would enable to reduce risks, provide nutrition and income to producers. .
  • Physiological studies Crop to leaf ratio, branch die-back, leaf rolling as drought escaping mechanism have been studied and documented.
  • Quality of main Ethiopian mild coffee were separated and identified based on bean shape and quality assessment using raw, roast and liquor characteristics
  • 34 selections and 6 hybrids were evaluated and have got acceptable quality and released for different agro ecologies
  • Covering period and drying depth on drying time (days) of parchments were recommended
  • Method and time of fermentation recommendation had been given for different agro ecologies
  • Influence of shade during coffee fermentation sage on quality has been investigated
  • Investigation on the recirculation of coffee factory water for fermentation
  • Source of coffee stinker during processing as investigated as the main cause
  • Influence of storage time at primary stores for quality deterioration was investigated
  • Coffee quality status for some new coffee producer area were evaluated
  • Sub soil (1/3 top part) with Top soil + Sand + Farm yard manure (2/3 bottom part), and Sub soil (1/3 top part) with Top soil + Sand + Coffee husk (2/3 bottom part) were found to be the best media types for higher rooting percentage of cuttings (> 85%) and vigorous seedlings growth of tea (shoot and root biomass production).

Research Programs and Projects

Program

Project

No. of research activities

Objectives

South west and New emerging coffee growing areas

Coffee Technology Generation and Promotion for South West Coffee Growing Areas of Ethiopia

66

§  To enable the country be competent in international coffee market by supplying best quality coffees and thus increase the income of coffee growers (Coffee Technology Generation).

§  To enhance the participatory technology generation, multiplication, transfer and evaluation of coffee technologies and improve the living standard of farmers, traders and in the sector (Coffee Technology multiplication & transfer).

 

Coffee Technology Generation and Promotion for New Potential Coffee Growing Areas of Ethiopia

15

West coffee growing areas

Coffee Technology Generation and Promotion for Western Coffee Growing Areas of Ethiopia

25

Tea Research

Tea Technology generation and Promotion

2

§  To develop, adapt and promote improved tea technologies, information and knowledge increasing the production and productivity of tea and thereby contribute to increased income of all actors in the tea value chain.

 

 

PUBLICATIONS

Several technical coffee publications have been produced and distributed to promote technology transfer and experience sharing in the country and elsewhere. 

No.

1

Type

Author/Editor/Year

Remarks

Proccedings

1.1

Coffee Diversity & Knowledge. Proceedings on Four Decades of Coffee Research and Development in Ethiopia, A National Workshop, 14-17 August 2007, Ghion Hotel, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Girma et al. (2008)

 

1.2

Workshop of Coffee and Associated Main Crops of Major Coffee Growing Regions of Ethiopia. February 27- March 01, 1995, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia

 

Not published

1.3

Mineral fertilization of coffee in Ethiopia. Institute of Agricultural Research, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Paulos Dubale (1994)

 

1.4

First Ethiopian Symposium on coffee. 20-23 August 1986, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

 

Not published

1.5

First Regional Workshop On Coffee Berry Disease. 19-24 June 1982, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

AAASA (1984)

 

2

Research Reports

2.1

Shade tree in organic coffee production. EARO, Research Report No 56

Dechasa Jiru (2004)

 

2.2

Characterization of the farming systems of Haru Weredea: Western Wellega Zone. Reserach Report No 44.

Tsegaye and Taye (2002)

 

2.3

Characterization of the farming system of Mettu Wereda in Illubabor Zone. Reserach Report No 45.

Admasu et al. (2002)

 

2.4

Description and production recommendations for new cultivars of Arabica coffee. IAR Research Report No 34.

Bayeta et al. (1998)

 

2.5

Economics of pruning techniques in Jimma zone. Research Report 35

Kassahun Seyoum (1998)

 

3

Production Manuals

3.1

Tea seedling production and management

Melaku Addisu and Kifle Belachew (2017)

Amharic

3.2

Coffee rejuvenation techniques

Alemseged and Taye (2016)

 

3.3

Manual for coffee quality laboratory

Abrar and Nigusie (2015)

Amharic

3.4

Modern coffee management

Alemseged et al. (2014)

Amharic

3.5

Coffee seed quality management and evaluation techniques

Alemseged et al. (2014)

Amharic

3.6

Coffee training and pruning techniques

Alemseged et al. (2012)

Amharic

3.7

To’annaa fi Ittisa Dhukkuba Jirma Buna Gogsu

Girmma et al. (1999 EC)

Oromiffa

3.8

Control and prevention of coffee wilt disease

Girma et al. (1997 EC)

Amharic

3.9

Recommended Production Technologies for Coffee and Associated Crops. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

JARC Task Force (1996)

English/Amharic

3.10

Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) genetic resources and breeding. CIP-Ethiopia

Watkins (1985)

 

3.11

Report on the soil and foliar analysis in 15 CIP areas in Socialist Ethiopia. EEC/MCTD, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia

Hofner and Schmitz (1984)

 

3.12

Coffee nursery management 14p

JAR Station, IAR (1965 EC)

Amharic

3.13

Field transplanting of coffee seedlings 12p

JAR Station, IAR (1965 EC)

Amharic

3.14

Coffee Mission to Ethiopia (1964-65). FAO of the United Nations, Rome

FAO (1968)

 

CONTACT ADDRESSES

Demelash Teferi (Plant Pathologist)
Program Coordinator for Southwest and New Emerging Coffee Growing Areas Research;
Process Representative, Coffee and Tea Research
Tel.: +251917833063
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 

Kalifa Nasiro (Coffee Breeder) 
Program Coordinator for West Coffee Research 
Tel.: +251917307050
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Melaku Addis (Breeder) 
Program Coordinator, Tea Research
Tel.: +251917806635
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.