Partnership

EIAR’s Role Vis-À-Vis CG Partners, Regional Research Centers and Universities

The Ethiopian Agricultural Research System (EARS) consists of Federal and Regional Agricultural Research Institutes (RARIs), and Higher Learning Institutions (HLIs). EIAR is responsible for the running of federal research centers, and RARIs are administered by the regional state governments. Currently, the EARS comprise 69 research centers and sites located across various agro-ecological zones. The research centers vary in their experience, human, facility, and other resources capacities. Some of the research centers and sites have one or more sub-centers and testing sites. In addition to conducting research at its federal centers, EIAR is charged with the responsibility for providing the overall technical coordination of agricultural research countrywide, and advising Government on agricultural research policy formulation.

Institutions that perform agricultural research in Ethiopia

 

No

Research Institutions

Roles

1

Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research

      Conduct research to generate, adapt and popularize improved agricultural technologies;

      Multiply, and distribute to the beneficiaries across the country;

      Coordinate the National Agricultural Researches System and capacity building;

      Advise Government on agricultural research, policy formulation; and

      Network with national and international institutions.

2

Regional agricultural research institutes

 

      Conduct research within the regional jurisdiction to generate and adapt agricultural technologies that will improve productivity in the region;

      Undertake the demonstration and popularization of agricultural technologies in the region;

      Coordinate the region’s agricultural research conducted by research centers, higher learning institutes and other organizations; and

      Administer and build up a research capacity of agricultural research centers under the regional government. 

3

Higher learning institutions

      Conduct teaching to produce competent graduate in a diverse field of study;

      Undertake researches and disseminate improved agricultural technologies; and

      Provide demand driven and transformative community services.

 

Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR): EIAR is doing its level best to generate and promote agricultural technologies, contributing to the national demands of transforming Ethiopian agriculture. To this end, the institute has established 17 federal agricultural research centers throughout the country.

Regional Agricultural Research Institutes (RARIs): There are seven agricultural research institutes, which are administered by the regional state governments. The regional agricultural research institutes are mandated to undertake agricultural technology development and popularization within the respective regional state jurisdiction. They are also responsible for the running of the research centers and sites located in their respective regions.

Agricultural research centers in RARIs

No

Regional Agricultural Research Institutes

Number of Research centers

1

Oromia Agricultural Research Institute

17

2

Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute

9

3

South Agricultural Research Institute

6

4

Tigray Agricultural Research Institute

9

5

Somali Pastoral and Agro-pastoral Research Institute

4

6

Afar Pastoral and Agro-pastoral Research Institute

5

7

Gambella Agricultural Research Institute

3

Total

53

 

Higher Learning Institutions (HLIs): Higher Learning Institutions having college of agriculture are among the actors that perform agricultural research in Ethiopia. The followings are those, which engage in agricultural research undertakings either fully or partially to the agricultural sector.

        Haramaya University, College of Agriculture

        Hawassa University (Hawassa College of Agriculture and Wondogenet Forestry College)

        Jimma University (Jimma Agricultural College)

        Ambo University (College of Agriculture)

        Mekele University (College of Agriculture)

        Arbaminch University

        Bahirdar University

        Addis Ababa University (Aklilu Lemma Institute, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, and Science faculty)

Current Partners and Commitments

EIAR works with national, regional and international partners and collaborators based on mutually agreed frameworks. The partnership and collaboration are in research, germplasm exchange, staff, student, and funding.

EIAR has signed Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with a number of international, regional, and national research  institutions through which it can further collaborate in joint research, germplasm and staff exchange, supporting laboratories as well as promoting scaling up of agricultural technologies. EIAR is promoting strong relationships with several universities to enhance staff development programs and joint research activities.

Regarding bilateral collaborations, EIAR has signed MOUs with several foundations such as the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, governments like the Netherlands, China, Korea, Japan, etc. for technical and financial support as well as joint research projects. As part of these arrangements, EIAR organizes and participates in several research for development (R4D) conferences, seminars and research reviews. EIAR also hosts Farmers Research Groups II Project of the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) at its headquarters. Below are the major national, regional and international partners who have been working in partnership with the agricultural research system in Ethiopia.

Ministry of Agriculture (MoA): The Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) with its different directorates and regional agricultural offices acts as the apex body of the extension system to regulate and oversees the overall implementation of the agricultural development strategy and coordinate participation of other major stakeholders in various areas. The Ministry facilitates Agricultural Research and Development partners Linkage Advisor Council (ARDPLAC) which serves as linkages forum among development partnerships and as a feedback mechanism so that the research wing can address problems that are identified by the sector. The major stakeholders include, among others, extension, research, input supply civil society, private sector, cooperatives and marketing services, as well as women’s associations and women’s affairs offices.

Regional Agricultural Bureaus (BoA): following decentralization policy, regional agricultural offices under state government administration undertake agricultural extension and development activities in their respective region following the structural arrangement at regional, zonal, woreda and Kebele level. Agricultural Research and Development partners Linkage works at the regional level and serve as a interface mechanism between research-extension-farmers. Moreover, regional agricultural offices work in partnership at different times with EIAR on technology adaptation, demonstration and pre-extension technology dissemination activities, provision of trainings to agricultural experts and farmers to build knowledge and skill in the technology itself and its subsequent practice, and finally monitoring and evaluation.

Agricultural Transformation Agency (ATA): ATA is one of the key actors performing in collaboration with the national agricultural research system. The agency is an initiative of the Government of Ethiopian, with the help of international donor organizations, to address the high level systemic and operational bottlenecks of the agricultural sector in general and that of the research system in particular by supporting the MoA, RARIs, research institutes and other public, private and non-governmental partners. Among the three main program areas that ATA is engaged in currently, the system program is designed in such a way to address systemic bottlenecks that hinder effective and efficient generation and dissemination of improved agricultural technologies to the beneficiaries.

Technology multipliers: Technology multipliers are in Ethiopia commonly called Seed producing enterprises. They are engaged in the multiplication of certified seed and distribute to the farmers through cooperatives at local level. They multiply the seed of improved varieties after the National Variety Release Committee (NVRC) approves the varieties for release, they receive a certain amount of breeder seed from the research system to produce and supply certified seeds. The problem with this approach is that there is no separate agency that handle the certification process. Furthermore, the enterprises are not in full capacity to produce seed of improved varieties of all crops released from the research system in view of creating equal access to the farmers to get in the amount that they demand. The national seed system consists of the below listed seed producing enterprises:-

  • Ethiopian Seed Enterprise
  • Oromia Seed Enterprise
  • Amhara Seed Enterprise
  • South Seed Enterprise

Farmers’ cooperatives: Farmers’ cooperatives are amongst the key local actors in Ethiopia. They play an important role in providing agricultural input supply service (seed of improved crop varieties, supply of inorganic fertilizer such as UREA and DAP and chemicals for weed, pests, and diseases), selling of agricultural output, providing marketing information and credit service for members. The cooperatives are very instrumental in technology promotion and further scaling up processes by the provision of inputs (seed and fertilizer) and distribution, credit, improving bargaining power for farmers and market access. Cooperatives also work in partnership with the research institutes to produce seed of improved varieties by providing their land and labor.

Farmers/Pastorals and local government administration: farmers/pastorals are central to rural and agricultural development strategy of Ethiopia. The strategy emphasizes the importance of engaging farmers/pastorals in the research and development process; and promotes the use of participatory research and development approaches through which the farmers/pastorals are more proactive in all stages of the practice. To this end, the research system has made use of different participatory approaches to design client oriented technology development projects and to promote the research result to the beneficiaries. The farmers/pastorals in research group identify topics for research, conduct field experiment, monitor the progress and evaluate the end result together with researchers and extension personnel. The farmers/pastorals also provide their land and labor along with their indigenous knowledge. Some of the prominent participatory approaches which have been employed for the past while in technology demonstration and promotions are listed below:

     Farmers Research Group (FRG)

     Pre-scaling up of agricultural technologies

     Pre-extension demonstration and participatory variety selection

     Farmers field days and field visit

     Agricultural Research and Development partners Linkage Advisor Council (ARDPLAC)

 

Private Stakeholders and Non-Governmental Organizations

  1. Private stakeholders: little or no agricultural research work is done by the private sector in Ethiopia. This is to say that private sector engagement in agricultural sector is negligible; from recent time, however, the private sector has been involved in seed production, irrigation water development, livestock health service, marketing and providing information on quality requirements in partnership with the country’s extension and research system. A collaborative effort of public-private sector partnership (PPP) is recently initiated mechanism in which each sector contributes to the planning, resources and activities needed to accomplish mutual end goals. Yet, the engagements regards to joint research efforts are very limited due to lack of clear working procedures and joint forums that enables joint engagement in planning, resource exchange, trainings and so on.

 

  1. Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), also called CG centers: Non-government organizations are increasingly involved in technology and input supply, training, financing, and monitoring and evaluation, etc. In particular to CGIAR, Ethiopian Institution of agricultural Research is working with 15 CG centers mainly CIAT, CIMMYT, CIP, ICARDA, ICRAF, ICRISAT, and ILRI through either represented branch offices in Ethiopia or they cooperate through their various networks. The cooperating is in research, germplasm exchange, staff, student, and funding that benefit the farming/pastoral community in the country. FAO, IFAD, UNDP and the World Bank serve as either sponsors or co-sponsors to the particular joint initiatives. The specific mission that CG centers are working in partnership with EIAR is to support scientific research and research-related activities in the fields of agriculture, forestry, fisheries, policy, and environment and thereby to generate and transfer suitable agricultural technologies to the beneficiaries for sustainable food security and reduction of poverty in Ethiopia.

 

Specific Contribution of Research Partners to Achieve Milestones

The contribution of research partners to achieve the milestones of EIAR is tremendous. It is from carrying jointly the research projects, germplasm exchange, technology demonstration and promotion, value chain development and creating market access, to physical and human capacity buildings, etc. However, the contribution is not adequate while it is seen from to the extent that the country hosted large number of CG centers.

Areas of research and fund support through joint collaboration and partnership

 

No

Areas of research and fund support

Status (number)

On-going

Completed/intent

Sub-total

1

Crop technology generation

66

106

172

2

Adaptation and verification

 

89

89

3

Livestock research

3

12

15

4

Soil and water research

14

33

47

5

Agricultural mechanization

2

9

11

6

BGA

2

7

9

7

Scio-economics

3

2

5

8

Seed multiplication

3

1

4

9

Biotechnology

5

2

7

10

Pesticide research and control and chemical verification

118

88

206

11

Quality laboratory

1

1

2

Grand Total

217

350

567